Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 23-28
Comparative Study on Heavy Metals and Hydrocarbons Accumulation in Cassava Tubers Harvested from Four Different Locations in Rivers State, Nigeria
Ndukwe Gloria Ihuoma, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Odinga Tamuno-boma, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Gabriel-Brisibe Christine Umanu, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
George Damiete Amabinba, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Fou Erekedoumene, Department of Environmental Management and Control, Institute of Geoscience and Space Technology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 16, 2020;       Accepted: Jun. 28, 2020;       Published: Jul. 28, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijee.20200502.12      View  144      Downloads  26
Abstract
The threat to humans, animals, and plants life by pollution due to gas flare and oil and gas industrial activities cannot be overemphasized. This study compared the hydrocarbons and heavy metals accumulation in cassava tubers harvested from four different locations in Rivers State. The study areas include Rukpoku, Rivers State University (RSU) farm, Eleme community and Nkpolu-Oroworukwo community. Cassava tubers were collected from farms located in the aforementioned areas, prepared and analyzed for hydrocarbons and heavy metals contents. Standard spectro-analytical method was used to determine the concentrations of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total polycyclic hydrocarbon (TPH) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene) were analyzed using standard chromatographic procedure. Results obtained from the analyses revealed the presence of heavy metals in all the samples in the order Eleme > Nkpolu-Oroworukwo > Rukpoku > RSU farm. Pb was not detected in the entire sample analyzed, Mn was below the permissible range, while Zn, Fe and Cu were above the permissible range. TPH was detected in all samples analyzed in the order Eleme > Nkpolu-Oroworukwo > Rukpoku > RSU farm. RSU farm had the least concentration of PAH, While BTEX was not detected in all samples analyzed. The results suggest the presence of heavy metals and hydrocarbons (anthracene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz (a) anthracene, benz (b) fluoranthene, indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenz (a, h) anthracene) in cassava tubers harvested from the study locations, but with greatest accumulation in samples from Eleme community and least in those from RSU farm. Consumption of such crops could pose health challenges to the consumers over time.
Keywords
Hydrocarbon, Heavy Metals, Cassava, Eleme Community, Rivers State University Farm
To cite this article
Ndukwe Gloria Ihuoma, Odinga Tamuno-boma, Gabriel-Brisibe Christine Umanu, George Damiete Amabinba, Fou Erekedoumene, Comparative Study on Heavy Metals and Hydrocarbons Accumulation in Cassava Tubers Harvested from Four Different Locations in Rivers State, Nigeria, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 23-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20200502.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
FAO/IFAD (2000). The World Cassava Economy: Facts, Trends and Outlooks, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Fund for agricultural Development. Rome.
[2]
FAOSTAT (2010). Food and agricultural Commodities production. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Statistics Database.
[3]
Odinga, T., Ayalogu, E. O. and Essien, E. B. (2016). Effect of Effluent from Port Harcourt Refining Company on Hepatic and Reproductive Functions of Wistar Albino Rats. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 6 (4): 112-117.
[4]
Odokuma, L. O. (2009). Effect of cultural Age and Biomass Concentration on Heavy Metal uptake by three Axenic Bacterial Cultures. Advances in Applied Science 3 (3): 339-349.
[5]
Idodo-Umeh, E. W. G. and Ogbeibu, A. E. (2010). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in cassava tubers and plantain fruits grown in soil impacted with petroleum and non-petroleum activities. Research journal of Environmental Sciences. 4 (1): 33-41.
[6]
Hong, A. H., Law, P., Ling, S. and Onni, S. (2014). Heavy metal concentration levels in soil at Lake Geriyo irrigation site, Yola, Adamawa state, North Eastern Nigeria. International journal of Environmental monitoring and analysis. 2 (2): 106-111.
[7]
Demirezen, D. and Ahmet, A. (2006). Heavy metal levels in vegetables in Turkey are within safe limits for Cu, Zn, Ni and exceeded for Cd and Pb. Journal of food quality. 29: 252-265.
[8]
Nwaichi, E. O., Frac, M., Nwoha, P. A. and Eragbor, P. (2015). Enhanced phytoremediation of crude oil-polluted soil by four plant species: effect of inorganic and organic bioaugmentation. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 17 (12): 12531261.
[9]
Ogali, R. E., Osuji, L. E. and Ayodele, O. (2007). Acute toxicity of the water soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil on the African catfish. Chemical Biodiversity 4: 2755-2765.
[10]
Abdulazeez, T. L. and Peter, F. (2017). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A. review, Cogent Environmental Science, 3: 1. DOI: 10.1080/23311843.2017.1339841.
[11]
Nwaichi, E. O., Chuku, L. C. and Ighoavwogan, E. (2016). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Selected Heavy Metals in Some Oil Polluted Sites in Delta State Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection. 7, 1389-1410.
[12]
Odinga, T. B., Ayalogu, E. O. and Essien, E. B. (2015). Physicochemical and hydrocarbon content of effluent from port Harcourt refining company and its effect on renal function of albino rats. Journal Research in environmental Science and technology 4 (2): 028-031. DOI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.14303/jrest.2015.132.
[13]
Bolden, A. (2015). Retrieved from https://fromthestyx.wordpress.com/2015/04/15/btex-exposure-is-an-increasing-public-health-concern.
[14]
Gibson, D. T. and Parales, R. (2000). Aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases in environmental biotechnology. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 11: 236–243.
[15]
Ogbonna, D. N., Ekweozor, I. K. E., Nrior, R. R. and Ezinwo, F. E. (2019). Evaluation of Organic Nutrient Supplements and Bioaugmenting Microorganisms on Crude Oil Polluted Soils. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 38 (6): 1-19, DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2019/v38i630395.
[16]
Naluba, G. N. and Arokoyu, S. B. (2015). Evaluation of local government headquarters as regional development centers in Rivers state, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2 (11): 2313-3759.
[17]
Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, TNRCC Method 1005, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Revision 03, June 1, 2001.
[18]
LeCoultre, D. (2001). A Meta-Analysis and risk assessment of heavy metal uptake in common garden vegetable, East Tennessee State University, USA.
[19]
Aloysius, A. P., Rufus, S. and John, O. O. (2013). Evaluation of heavy metals in soils around auto mechanic workshop clusters in Gboko and Makurdi, Central Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 5 (11): 298-306, DOI: 10.5897/JECE2013.0295.
[20]
Hart, A. D., Oboh, C. A., Barrimalda, I. S. and Sokari, T. G. (2005). Concentration of trace metals (lead, iron, copper and zinc) in crops harvesting in some oil prospecting locations in River state Nigeria. Port-Harcourt. Afrika Linkpress.
[21]
Mgbemena, N. M., Ilechukwu, I., Ubadi, J. O. and Ndukwe, G. I. (2017). Status of heavy metals pollution in the sediments of the new Calabar river in Rivers state, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 42 (2): 84-87.
[22]
Nwaichi, E. O., Wegwu, M. O. and Nwosu, U. L. (2014). Distribution of selected carcinogenic hydrocarbon and heavy metals in an oil polluted agricultural zone. EMAS; 186 (12): 8607-8706.
[23]
Ilechukwu, I., Osuji, L. C., Onyema, M. O. and Ndukwe, G. I. (2016). Occurrence and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons in soils within the vicinity of hot mix asphalt plants in Obigbo and Igwuruta areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 20 (4): 1087-1094. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v20i4.24.
Browse journals by subject